Washminster

Washminster
Washminster

Wednesday, 17 May 2017

ECHR - Key Rights & Restrictions

What are the key rights in the European Convention on Human Rights? - and when can these be restricted? The answers can be found in the Convention itself

But it can be easy to lose sight of the key points - so I have prepared a hand-out for my Open University W201 students, which reformats the text to highlight what the rights cover - and when States can interfere with them. This is a revision document - so if it is of help to you - or you have friends studying Constitutional; or  Administrative Law (UK) or Human Rights Law - please feel free to use it, or share this post (Facebook; Twitter; Email - or whatever)

Article 8 – Right to respect for private and family life 

1.    Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.

2.    There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except 

    1. such as is in accordance with the law and 
    2. is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.


Article 9 – Freedom of thought, conscience and religion 

1.    Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.

2.    Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs shall be subject only 

    1. to such limitations as are prescribed by law and 
    2. are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of public safety, for the protection of public order, health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.


Article 10 – Freedom of expression 

1.    Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. This article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises.

2.    The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to 

    1. such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and 
    2. are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.

Article 11 – Freedom of assembly and association 

1.    Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

2.    No restrictions shall be placed on the exercise of these rights other than 

    1. such as are prescribed by law and 
    2. are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on the exercise of these rights by members of the armed forces, of the police or of the administration of the State.


·        Do not forget the principle of proportionality – R (on the application of Daly) v Home Secretary [2001] 2 AC 532


o   Is the legislative objective sufficiently important to justify limiting a fundamental right?

o   Are the measures taken rationally connected to this objective?

o   Are the measures taken no more than is necessary to accomplish this objective?

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